Well ... not really family secrets. More of a desultory miscellany. Some secrets, some scandals, some events, some curiosities, some achievements; some interesting, some tragic, some romantic, some funny...as it says on the label - a potpourri. Wrights, Picketts, Berrys, Conibeers, Hectors, Feys, Luxtons, Willings, Pitts, Mordeys, Pollards, Heards and Slees
In May 1914, scandal overtook the Reverend Theophilus Rodick Willing at Blackpool Magistrate’s Court, in messy and public revelations of a family dispute. The Court heard accusations of drunkenness and abuse, unfaithfulness, seduction and betrayal, secret correspondence, forged confessions, and shocking suggestions concerning blackmail and a brothel. The scandal involved Theo, his young wife, his best friend the curate of South Shore Parish Church, Blackpool and the Freemasons, all stoked-up by scheming and outraged in-laws. Little could Theo have guessed when he married his 19-year old bride in Blackpool, that in less than a year, events would land him in the town’s Magistrate's Court accused of desertion, and facing an order for maintenance. Annie Willing, nee Stafford, the daughter of Henry Stafford, painter and decorator, charged that life with Theo was one of torture, forcing her out of the marriage home, his behaviour such that she could not bear to live with him, and thus this state of affairs amounted to his desertion of her. Theo insisted that not only had he not deserted her, but that he fervently wished her to return to their home in North Hill, Cornwall, where he was Rector of the Parish. Her lawyers claimed his pleas were bogus. The court sat from 10.45am to 7.45pm hearing the "Amazing Allegations" as the local paper described them. Lawyers for the two sides clashed fiercely throughout the day.
Annie outlined her allegations first - her evidence implied that Theo was cruel and brutish. She alleged that within weeks of the marriage she found that he drank to excess. She claimed he tried to force her against her will to drink whisky, and smoke cigarettes. He gave her no housekeeping, verbally abused her and threatened to thrash her. He would not give her the money to visit her parents in Blackpool. She made the trip, only after being sent the money by her father, and she returned to Cornwall with a friend, Miss Devon. One night, alarmed at his drunken attitude, when he threatened again to thrash her, she spent the night in her friend's bed. She claimed that Theo took his tools and tried to break into their room. They pushed chairs against the door. Weeks later, when another friend was staying, Theo insisted that Annie and her friend should stay in a Temperance Hotel in Plymouth, where he would join them - this was engineered so that she should not see her father who had announced he was coming to North Hill. The first evening there, hearing voices in the corridor, she opened the door to find her husband talking to a young woman, only half-dressed in her camisole, smoking a cigarette. Subsequently Annie learned from the woman that "she was there for the purpose of receiving sailors". Shocked, Annie demanded that the party move to another hotel. Shortly after this incident, only seven months after the wedding, the marriage deteriorated beyond salvation. Theo unaccountably rushed off to her home town of Blackpool, sending Annie to stay in Brighton. She alleged she was left there for two weeks, friendless and penniless. She wrote to her husband and to her father. Theo returned to Brighton unannounced to meet her - his manner was cold and hostile. He told her that he had heard something about her in Blackpool, "that he had wished he had never seen her, and that she should leave him". He told her to go to the devil and treated her, she claimed, "like a pig", refusing to stay the night with her in the hotel. Her father arrived in Brighton later that day, and after a confrontation with Theo at the station the next day, he took his daughter with him back to Blackpool. And thus their brief marriage seemed to have ended.
On the face of it, Annie's story sounds compelling, and sadly not so unusual, at a time when women were still very much regarded as part of the man's chattels in a marriage, her story differing only from numerous other sad tales in that her husband was a mild looking young clergyman. But Annie's demeanour during cross examination was at times uncooperative, and her answers sometimes glib, evasive or contradictory. Her husband's lawyer began to tease out an altogether different dimension to the story, despite attempts by Annie's lawyer to prevent him.The Reverend Fearnley Youens was curate at the South Shore Parish Church where Annie taught Sunday School and was an active church member. Youens had been Theo's best friend at University, and he had introduced Theo to Annie. What began to emerge in court was the allegation that Annie had been closer to Fearnley Youens than was seemly. During their engagement Theo had discovered a letter written by Annie to a gentleman, signed "your loving Phyllis". The court heard that shortly before the wedding whilst Theo was in Jersey on business, something had happened between Annie and Youens. Annie's solicitor intervened to prevent further discussion of what may have occurred. Then followed an accusation that Annie's mother had demanded a £100 of the Rev. Youens shortly after the wedding. The demand was apparently linked to a confession Annie had written for her mother, a shocking cofession describing what had occurred between her and Youens - a confession that Annie subsequently withdrew in letters written to Youens. This confession and the impropriety it alleged, committed by Youens, with Annie's apparent acquiescence, was at the heart of the scandal. Her father admitted that he had written secret letters to his daughter at North Hill, and sent her money so that she could come to Blackpool and verify her confession in person to the Freemasons, against Youens. When cross-questioned, other Stafford family members acknowledged a conspiracy of spite against Youens. Theo's solicitor seems to have come closest to the mark when he declared, "Three weeks after the wedding an allegation was made by the girl's mother to Mr Youens implicating him and the girl, and demanding money. The matter was taken up by Mr. Stafford who tried to get evidence to bring before the Freemason's so as to have a hold over Mr Youens. When the confession arrived, Stafford started to make use of it. The matter came before the Masons but nothing happened and the thing subsided. The girl went back and lived with her husband until an announcement was made in the papers that Mr Youens was to be married, when the matter was revived to punish Mr Youens out of spite." It was when he heard of this alleged impropriety between his wife and his best friend, that Theo had rushed to Blackpool to try to get at the truth, sending Annie to Brighton, away from the row. Then on hearing the allegations in full, Theo had returned to Annie in Brighton to confront her. But her father had arrived later to take her back to Blackpool to stir things up again.
It seems that in time, Theo soon either came to disbelieve that anything had happened, or forgave his wife and his friend.
But what of Annie's allegations against her husband? It was established that there was no suggestion of impropriety in the incident with the half-dressed woman in Plymouth.
Several witnesses, including Annie's friend and the family servants testified that there had been no evidence of harsh treatment of Annie in Cornwall, nor of excessive drinking. Letters were produced from Annie to her husband that were couched in the most tender terms. It transpired that having only just come into the living at North Hill, with no tithes yet received, Theo was short of money, and had been unable to afford an allowance for Annie until he had become financially more secure.
Sarah Ann Heard was born in 1861 at New Buildings, Sandford, to Daniel Heard, farm labourer, and his first wife Elizbeth Chudleigh. Her mother died when she was 7, she had a new stepmother by the time she was 8 and soon there were stepbrothers in the household. It is not clear if Sarah attended a primary school before the age of 11, but there was ample provision for primary education in Sandford for those whose family circumstances allowed them to take advantage of it. She was described as a scholar in the 1871 census, but that tended to be the default description for children over 4 and meant little. Only when she was 14 did she start attending Haywards School, Crediton, on 23 May 1876. She joined in the 5th Class, when routine admissions were to the 3rd class, at age 11. She had barely moved up into the 2nd class when she was withdrawn from school, in October 1876, after just 5 month's education as she was "wanted at home". That was not so uncommon for children in poor families. But more unusual was the stark comment that a teacher wrote in the register when noting her withdrawal. " A greatly neglected girl".
We can surmise that this was referring to more than her abbreviated education of barely 5 months' duration. The neglect of the youngest child of a dead wife in a household where the new wife had her own children is not only the stuff of fiction, but was then a common reality, and we can speculate that was the nature of Sarah Ann's neglect.
Despite her upbringing Sarah Ann managed to make the most of her life. She went into domestic service. By 1881 she was working for surgeon Richard Andrews and his wife in Cowick Street, Exeter, as their general domestic servant. She obviously did well in service, for ten years later she was working for the chairman of the Fry's Chocolate business, Francis James Fry, in his Long Ashton home. Sarah Ann was cook, in a household staffed by a governess, a nurse, a parlour maid, a kitchen maid and a housemaid. As well as being Chairman of the chocolate manufacturers Francis Fry was a JP, was made Sheriff of Bristol, and was married twice, with fours sons and two daughters. This must have been a very responsible job for Sarah Ann to hold.
In 1892 Sarah Ann married domestic gardener Thomas Milford, and would probably have left domestic service then. They married in Clifton parish church, Bristol, and Sarah Ann's sister Maria was a witness. Husband Thomas and his family were from Crediton, but he had moved to the Bristol area in about 1875, at first living with his brother and his family, and later with his widowed father who had joined him, in Clifton. He and Sarah Ann continued to live in Clifton. By 1911 they had a boarder living with them. The evidence suggests that Sarah and Thomas had a settled domestic life. They had no children. Thomas died in 1931 in Clifton, and Sarah died two years later.
Agricultural implement maker Lewis Wright, son of Sandford smith and machinist James Wright, courted Mary Martha Berry, daughter of Crediton plumber John Berry, during the 1870s. In his youth at least Lewis seems to have been something of a lad. He recorded his first trip to London at the age of 15. It is evident from his letters that his social life encompassed many such trips. Mary Martha Berry was a striking beauty. She was more reserved than Lewis, but clearly had tremendous spirit. The letters that survive between the couple reveal their characters, and make charming reading.
"Sandford, Dec 1st 1872.
My Dear Mary, I have not heard whether you arrived home safe or not as when I was at Crediton they have not heard but I hope you are. I am happy to say that I feel in much more comfortable state of mind than I did when I wrote to you last for believe me I shall never forget that Sunday evening when you spoke that dear little word 'yes' for I am sure if I loved you before that, I know it is a great deal more now and more especially now that I know that you love me in return....There is a Grand Yeomanry Ball to be held at Crediton on Decr 12th for Mr Bullers troop in full dress uniforms.... The best of it is Jim [his brother] can't dance, so me, Jim, Mr Snow and Mr Butt have spoken to Mr Harvey to give us a few lessons. I thought I might as well learn too. So we commence on Tuesday for five nights, two hours of a night. ...Just fancy me going dancing. I expect it will be very funny at first but I shall soon learn....With love that will last for you as long as I live and believe me to remain yours affectionately,
(I never pass that road without thinking of that little word 'yes')"
"Sandford, August 13th 1873.
My dearest Marie, I was very much pleased to receive your letter yesterday morning and to see that you were arrived safe.....There was an accident happened to the N Devon train on Monday afternoon, the engine got into the water at Cowley Bridge. Mother was in Exeter on Monday but fortunately came home by the train before. They have not got the Engine out yet...I have not been in to Crediton since and I don't think I shall until Sunday evening. I shall miss your dear company on Saturday night, the company that I value more than any one else in the world, for without your love Marie I should be miserable. (May I expect another letter if you have time) I must conclude as I am very busy. Accept my love and believe me to remain your ever affectionate, Lewis
May Heaven protect me for your sake
Pray both night and day
That I some day may call you mine
My own dear MMB
For you are all the world to me
Although so far away
I often think of the pleasant walks
And little MMB"
The course of their love most certainly did not run smooth. It is evident that Mary's stepmother Emma Holcombe, now married to her second husband, did not approvc of Lewis as a future son-in-law.
"Sandford, March 30th 1873.
My dearest Marie,.....I should think your Mother has forgotten me altogether or at least for some little time. I expect when she gets in a temper with you, you will know what to say to her and I have no doubt she will believe you. You have promised me whatever your Mother says to you that you will not alter your mind and I don't believe you will for I can assure you I will never alter mine. I love you now more than I ever did before and I am certain I shall continue to love you more and more as long as I live......I am certain it will be one of the Proudest days of my life when I call you Dear Little Wife with or without your Mothers consent.....Accept the love of one that loves you truly and sincerely and believe me remains your affectionate
" Sandford, June 29th 1873.
My dearest Marie.... I think it is very silly of them to keep bringing up my name before your mother. ( I don't mind how often to you) for they can see for certain how she takes it. I am going to Crediton tonight and if I see Eliza I shall talk with her about it and ask her to be kind enough not to bring up my name at all. You say you are quite at liberty to please your own self, and I believe you will but still I think it best for you to be Happy and Comfortable with your mother as long as you possibly can for my dear I have every respect for your mother because she is your mother although I firmly believe she will never like me but I don't mind that. I feel assured I have your love and believe me you shall have mine for ever. ... My dear I must conclude this, accept my love and believe me I remain your affectionate Lewis."
"Union Terrace, Crediton Dec 17 1875
My dear Lewis, I am very glad that you arrived quite safe and that you had it so nice going up. I thought you would be almost frozen, it was such a cold day, the coldest we have had. We had such a quantity of snow in the afternoon. I was obliged to go out in am. Whilst coming home I thought I would walk fast. The consequence was I almost fell and to save myself I leaned against an old woman's umbrella almost throwing her down. She looked very indignant while I only laughed....I can just fancy how much you enjoyed yourself last night at the Alhambra, And I suppose the final entry in today's programme will be Drury Lane Theatre or some other nice one. Tomorrow Thursday I wonder where you will be going. I shall be almost if not quite on the bars of the grate dreaming over the pages of the Family Herald. I think you told me you would not go the Crystal Palace as you had been there. I am sure you will have a lot to tell me when you return....I shall conclude wishing that you may enjoy yourself very much, and now accept the love of yours affectionately, Marie"
"London Inn, Dawlish, August 2 1877.
My dear Mother, I am pleased to say that Mary and myself are quite well and happy. We are enjoying ourselves very much and very quietly. We have been out all day, on the beach etc. We have just had some tea and are going out again. We want to get as much sea air as we can. We both hope you are quite well and trust you have got over the excitement of yesterday as I am sure it was a trying day for you. There is one thing I promise you faithfully that is I will always be kind to Mary. I hope you will try and believe me in this little matter. Thanking you for all past kindness and mostly for the gift of your daughter. Mary joins with me in kind. Love and believe me yours affectionately Lewis W Wright."
Lewis was true to his word, and he and Mary had a long and happy marriage. They had six children who survived to maturity. They celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary in 1927. Lewis died less than a year later, and Mary Martha, who was held in great awe by her grandchildren, survived until 1939.
In about 1791 11 year-old John Berry seems to have left home, to live with family in Crediton, perhaps to ease the burden on his twice-widowed father, Sandford thatcher George Berry. Somehow he is taken under the wing of Crediton builder John Prawl, and about 1794 apprenticed to him. Prawl was mason to the Governors of the church in Crediton - the highest office open to a local craftsman. The young John seems to have impressed his master, and the business day books reveal that often Prawl and Berry would work together on a job. The young man became a close confidant of his master. In 1802 they went off together to the militia muster, when the Napoleonic threat seemed particularly strong. The bond between master and worker was strengthened even more when the apprentice was given the hand in marriage of the boss's daughter. In 1803 John married Martha Prawl at Crediton. The event passes with little comment in the day book - "Self, Berry, Edwards, Tremblett, Wreford and Manley not at work". Berry, Edwards, Tremblett, Wreford and Manley were not at work the next day either, but two days later, all, including the groom, were back in harness. John Prawl seems to have been a good master, making loans to his workers, and not pressing them for clearance of their debts, to the extent that some were never cleared.
By 1819, when he was well advanced in years John Prawl had passed effective control of the business to his son-in-law, for John is given an agreed wage and 50% of the profits. In 1822 on the death of master and father-in-law, John Berry took over the business, and proceeded to develop it into a more ambitious undertaking. From the day books it was evident that much of John Prawl's work had been for the large estates around the town, at Fulford estate, at Downes and at Newcombes. John Berry seemed to have continued with that business and began to win contracts for local civic improvements, including the contract for the construction of brick built drains for the town. Canny John apprenticed his three sons to different trades. John [my g-g-grandfather] was a plumber, Thomas a mason, who had no taste for building, and went to sea, and William a carpenter, who took over the business from his father. Father and son secured a maintenance contract for some 20 road bridges around Crediton. When John retired, comfortably off, in 1850, he had established a dynasty of builders and contractors.
The contract to maintain several county road bridges continued into the third generation under the care of William Boddy Berry. His son Hubert Berry, who took over the business about 1900, was something of an inventor and innovator. In 1907 he won the contract to replace the 16th century bridge over the Exe at Thorverton. Using reinforced concrete, which was a novelty at the time, the single span structure is believed to be the first of this construction in Devon. It was opened on 1st December 1908, for a final cost of £2392. It was load tested to 66 tons, which caused the middle two arch ribs to deflect 3/32 in. at the centre of the span, and the two outer ribs to deflect 1/16 in. The bridge was strengthened in 1997.
By 1890 the business became " Builder and General Contractor, Stone and Marble Monumental Mason, Undertaker and Dealer in Building Materials". Hubert took on partner Edwin Vincent in 1923. Finally Hubert retired and the business whilst retaining the name Berry, was run by the Vincent family. The business subsequently changed hands a few times before finally going under in 2008 after more than 200 years.
Robert Connibeer and his wife Elizabeth, nee Salter, seem to have been the kind of family that might attract attention in a small rural community, and perhaps at the beginning of the 19th century not for the best of reasons. Robert was from Sandford, and Elizabeth from Dawlish. They tried to settle in Dawlish after their marriage in 1788, but the Dawlish Overseers would not have it, and in the same year Robert and Elizabeth were removed to Robert's home parish of Sandford. But in about 1805 or 1806 the family moved to neighbouring Colebrooke and settled there legally. They had at least twelve children - seven girls and five boys. Two of the girls died in infancy, perhaps three. The remaining four girls seem to have been most active in the parish when they reached adulthood. Between the four of them they produced 9 illegitimate children - Elizabeth (Betty) - 2, Ann - 1, Mary - 3 and Grace - 3. Collectively the four Connibeer girls were responsible for 25% of the base children baptised in Colebrooke parish between 1813 and 1837. There were a series of bastardy orders taken out against a number of different men, including my first cousin 4 times removed, James Fey. The youngest age at which any of the sisters gave birth was Elizabeth whose first son William was born when she was just 15 or 16. According to the bastardy examination " in the month of February last past (1806) she was mett on the road leading to Crediton by a Man whose Name was unknown to her who had Connection with her and he alone is the Father of the said Male Bastard Child, he the said Stranger having had carnal Knowledge of her Body on the Spot once and not since". Betty may, of course, have been protecting the true identity of the father, or the stranger may have forced his attentions on her, though there is no suggestion of that in the bastardy examination.
The orders made against the fathers (only four appear to have been identified - cousin James Fey of Colebrooke, William Preston of Drewsteignton, John Screech of Colebrooke, and Richard Stentiford of Zeal Monachorum) were for the sums of £1.00 - £1.8s for the lying-in of "the said Bastard Child" and the sum of 15-18 pence weekly maintenance. The mothers were required to pay 7-9 pence weekly to the Parish if they were not able to look after the child themselves. This was at a time when Ann Connibeer as a farm servant girl was earning 1s weekly plus board and an adult able-bodied male agricultural labourer would have earned 6s- 7s per week. Rents were about 1s per week.
Distant Crocker in-law William Mordey (1870-1923) was a colourful character. He was born in Southwark, but spent much of his working life in the East.Whilst serving in the army in Hong Kong, he was made a prison warder at Changi gaol, Singapore, which was to gain a notorious reputation during Japanese occupation in the War. After further army service in India, William returned to the prison service as Chief Warder at Pudu gaol, in the Federated Malay States, at Kuala Lumpur. As part of his duties he served as the last Hangman in the gaol. He also joined the volunteer Fire Service there at Selonga Fire Station.
He married beautiful Anglo-Malay Florence Palmer. They had nine children. He was evidently a sportsman, kept polo ponies and played against or with the polo team of Prince Edward of Wales. And his wife Florence really was a girl who danced with the Prince of Wales! Her great-granddaughter still has her dance card from the reception at government House in KL which shows she had two dances with Prince Edward. Having lived a full life, William died of a twisted colon in 1923, and was buried in Malaya. His family moved to England after his death
Sarah, daughter of pioneer Crediton photographer William Hector, inherited the creative genes in the family, as she was a music teacher, and several of her descendants were musicians. Edwin Fey probably met Sarah through his brother William, who lived next door to her in Crediton. Sarah married Edwin in 1870 in Bristol. Many of the Crediton and Shobrooke Feys had moved to Bristol, for as skilled tradesmen they could make good money in the expanding city. For 10 years Edwin, who was a builder, seemed content with his lot in Bristol, and he and Sarah had five children. But the Feys seem to have had an adventurous spirit and Edwin, like two of his brothers, went to the USA looking for work. He returned to Bristol and tried to persuade Sarah to emigrate. As she was then expecting their sixth child she was reluctant to make the journey, and could not be persuaded to go with him. Feeling that he had left his family well-provided for, Edwin left his wife and "eloped" with her best friend to the USA. This companion supposedly killed herself. Edwin changed his name to Frank Green, and bigamously married Rose. It is believed that Sarah heard nothing more of Edwin. Thinking herself to be widowed, in 1911 Sarah married George Bigwood in Bristol. She died in 1939. Edwin died in California in about 1923, having been a successful builder. Family stories say that Edwin always had tears in his eyes when he spoke of the family he had abandoned.
In 1796, a year after Susanna Crossman married militiaman John Heard in Sandford, Charity, a distant Wensley relative, married farmer John Luxton in North Tawton. The Luxtons had been landowners around Winkleigh for generations and could trace their line back to the 14th century. Charity's great grandson Robert John Luxton of West Chapple Farm, Winkleigh, had been raised by his father Laurence on a creed of ruthless self-sufficiency and thrift as the only way to survive the pressures on late 19th century agriculture that had ruined his less prudent and wealthier farming cousins. In Robert John this creed developed into a tyrannical Puritanism and fear of intrusion. He drove off the suitors of his daughter Frances, hoping perhaps she would marry a cousin as so many of the Luxtons had before, keeping the land within the family. Her brother Robbie, the eldest son, inherited his father's suspicion and resistance to change, and in turn destroyed his younger brother Alan's wedding plans. After Robert John's death in 1939, his children Frances, Robbie, and Alan lived on, unmarried, in the remote farm.
Frances and Alan sought to assert their independence, and to break out from the smothering gloom of brother Robbie's parsimony. The war brought US flyers to an aerodrome on the outskirts of Winkleigh. And for a while Frances and Alan in particular were caught up in the changes accompanying this great upheaval. After the war Alan joined the Young Farmers and hoped to modernise West Chapple's farming methods. But Robbie resisted this, and in many ways West Chapple continued to be farmed much as it had been in the mid nineteenth century. There was limited mechanisation and very little investment in modern machinery. Old almanacs served as textbooks for good husbandry. In fact the farm thrived under this care, but in some respects it was as if the dead hands of their ancestors were always struggling to shut out the twentieth century. Robbie even made the farm less accessible, closing off an entrance. Alan suffered a nervous breakdown and was hospitalised. When he came home he would stay in his bedroom for weeks on end. Frances was more outgoing and friendly in the village, visiting neighbours. But she too became more withdrawn, rarely venturing out except perhaps to visit family graves in Brushford churchyard three miles off, where today a bench commemorates her visits.
Gradually the two brothers and the sister became more reclusive, miserly and eccentric, and turned in on each other and the farm. Yet for a while in the 60s and early 70s Frances seemed about to escape, and would embark on long foreign tours with a friend to the Holy Land. But always she was drawn back into the closed world of West Chapple. As old age encroached on their isolated existence it became clear that with the youngest, Alan, unfit to work the farm, their enclosed lifestyle could not be sustained. In 1975 it seemed certain that they would sell the farm and retire to a modern bungalow in Crediton perhaps. There was talk that they had bought a bungalow, that a deal had been struck for West Chapple: but in fact there had been rows, anxiety and uncertainty. "We were born on the farm and we should die here". A worry that Frances was heard to utter again and again. This may have seemed sinister to city-dwelling outsiders, but a farming colleague of mine, much more worldly than the Luxtons, told me that the only move he had made in his life was to a different bedroom when he got married, and that it was a soul-tearing wrench he still felt whenever he had to sell any land - land that was his birthright.
Alan in particular seems to have objected aggressively to the sale, arguing with both his brother and sister. They had sold their cattle, but were still not absolutely committed to the sale of the farm. But it seems that Robbie was convinced it must go forward. On 23rd September 1975 a grocer's roundsman calling at the farm saw a white scarecrow lying next to the barn. On closer inspection he found that it was Alan Luxton in pyjamas and boots, his brains blown out. He summoned police, who cautiously searched the farm, as no gun had been found, and the gunman might still be lurking in the outbuildings. The house was deserted, but after some time the bodies of Frances and Robbie were found in the garden, both too with their brains blown out. Frances was on all fours, her knees drawn up as if in prayer. An old shotgun was beside Robbie. The inquest found that Alan had killed himself first, Robbie had then killed Frances and committed suicide. Victims of their past and of their own dark and claustrophobic lives. Frances is buried in Brushford churchyard. Alan and Robbie were cremated, and their ashes interred in their parents' grave in Winkleigh churchyard. John Cornwell has told the story of the Luxtons and West Chapple in Earth to Earth, published in 1982, and now apparently out of print. Genealogists should note that some of the Luxton family history there is inaccurate, and allegedly so too are some of his darker assertions about the family.The pedigree of William Thomas Heard can be followed back to Grace Sharland and through her brother Francis Sharland b.1837, to Grace Wensley, and thus back to Laurence's g-grandparents, John Wensley and Charity Reed. Frances is buried next to John Wensley in Brushford.
Over the years several of our family fulfilled their civic duty through elected office, to councils, to parliament or to other bodies that managed the affairs of their communities.
The earliest were the three generations of Hookers. John Vowell Hooker (d. 1493) was Mayor of Exeter in 1490 and a Member of Parliament five times during the reigns of Edward IV, Richard III, and Henry VII. His son Robert was Mayor of Exeter from 1529 - 1530. His grandson John Hooker was the first Chamberlain of Exeter, was the city's coroner and the MP for the city in 1568 and 1570-71. He also sat as a Member of the Irish Parliament.
The Sadleir family provided the great statesman Sir Ralph Sadleir in the 16th century. John Sadler was an Alderman and then High Bailiff of Stratford on Avon in 1570-71, his brother Roger was an Alderman, and was High Bailiff in 1572-3, and his son John was made Alderman in 1598, High Bailiff the following year and again in 1612 -1613. In the 19th century swindling brothers John and James Sadleir were both MPs. John for Carlow, and later Sligo, and James for Tipperary. John was made a junior Treasury Minister before his fall from grace. James was one of the few MPs to have been expelled from the Houses of Parliament.
Francis Hext (1736-1803) was Mayor of Bodmin in 1762 and 1768. His son Francis John Hext was Mayor of Bodmin in 1773, 1779, 1786 and 1789.
Nicholas Pitts (1799-1870) was Chairman of the Board of Guardians, and member of the Parish Vestry for Kingsbridge, Devon. He had been one of the Guardians for Chivelstone before moving to Kingsbridge.
Lewis Wright(1850-1928) had been a member of the Parish Vestry and was elected to the first Sandford Parish Council. He remained a member for many years. He was also on the Board of Sandford Charity Trustees.
William Boddy Berry was Chairman of Crediton Urban District Council in 1895, Walter Adams was Chairman from 1919 to 1927 and Arthur Bicknell was Chairman in 1932.
Arthur Madge Bennett (1905-1980) was described as an Amalgamated Engineering UInion stalwart. He worked for GWR. After WWII he was elected Labour Councillor in Swindon Borough Council, was Mayor of Swindon, and was made an Aldernman.
After a working life striving to help others, William Williams stood for Bristol City Council, and he was elected to represent Eastville Ward. He served on the Council until 1983, and also served on the National Executive of the Labour Party and on the Council Public Works Committee. After losing the Council election in 1983, he was made an honorary Alderman of the City of Bristol.
The 19th century saw an expansion of the middle-class, a term that referred to a social category of such a diverse range of people that there could be no satisfactory single definition of it. This diversity encompassed everything from the great industrialists and manufacturing entrepreneurs, professionals, politicians and public servants to shopkeepers, merchants, clerks, and tradesmen. Class was not determined by wealth, for it was not unusual for skilled working class men to earn more than many who would be considered middle-class. In reality there was a middle-class and a lower middle-class. And in Crediton, a small Devonshire market town, the make-up of both differed from the middle-classes of the Metropolis, or the great manufacturing and industrial conurbations. So how to define it? Historian E.P.Thompson suggested a criterion that might define our middle- and lower middle-classes wherever they were living. "Class happens when some men, as a result of common experience (inherited or shared) feel and articulate the identity of their interests as between themselves, and as against other men whose interests are different from theirs." - it was how people regarded themselves and were in turn regarded. The study of our families in 19th century Crediton suggests that a strong middle class emerged, as the tradesmen of the town began to regard themselves as distinctly separate from other social groups. They identified joint interests, and realised that their economic power and status set them apart from both the local squirearchy and the labouring classes in a more cohesive way than before. They established social networks with merchant neighbours who shared their interests, often cementing the relationships through marriage. Throughout the 19th century in Crediton it was as if a local mafia sprang up, with shopkeepers, tradesmen, innkeepers and similar socialising with each other, and marrying into each other's families. It seemed that occupying commercial premises on the town's High Street was an entrée into a marriage club! Master tailor Bicknell married mason's daughter Prawl, currier Adams married baker's daughter Vicary, plumber Berry married publican's daughter Milton, jeweller and watchmaker Bellringer married builder's daughter Berry, builder Berry married grocer's daughter Boddy, photographer's son Cornish married auctioneer's daughter Helmore...These were some of the members of our extended family in Crediton's middle-class. These people all had businesses that in the main employed others. But our families did more than reinforce their collective identity through marriages.
Although the magistracy seems to have been the preserve of the traditional landowning aristocracy of Mid-Devon, our burgeoning middle class in Crediton sought to exercise some influence through participation in local politics.
We find in the minutes of the Crediton Parish Vestry between the 1850s and 1880s that our family is represented by the participation of builders William and John Berry and William Boddy Berry, photographer William Hector, watchmaker William Hector, John Hector, plumber James Gover, tailor Charles Bicknell, overseer Thomas Pollard, tanner William Adams, and machinist Lewis Wright.
With the urbanisation of local government, our middle class began to consolidate its influence, and these same family members were elected to the board of Improvement Commissioners and Urban Sanitary Authority. When the new Urban District Council was established our cousins William Adams and William Boddy Berry were elected, the latter being appointed chairman. The 19th century saw a tremendous growth in friendly societies. They were to evolve into different guises over the years, but for the purposes of our socially mobile ancestors in Crediton, membership of such a society confirmed their collective identity: an oath, secret signs and knowledge, exclusive regalia marking office and achievement, members’ contributions and a sense of exclusiveness based on a line drawn between ‘insiders’ and ‘outsiders’ - thus did our middle class receive their recognition and respectability. There have been several friendly societies in Crediton over the years - the Ancient Order of Foresters, the Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffalos, the Loyal Order of Moose, and the Freemasons. It was the latter that perhaps offered the greatest kudos to our aspirant family- for the last quarter of the century the Prince of Wales was the Grand Master of the Freemasons! It is no surprise therefore that examination of the membership of the Crediton Unity Lodge No 1332 of the Freemasons from 1870 to 1920 reveals that familiar family names appear. Worshipful Masters of the Lodge included painter William Thomas, builder William Boddy Berry, jeweller William Hector and auctioneer Frederick Helmore. Other family members "on the square" included lawyer Thomas Hector, tanner Percy Bruce Adams, photographer Henry Cornish. William Boddy Berry was both the architect and the builder of the brand new Masonic Hall in Union Road in 1888, the year in which he was Worshipful Master. It is clear from the names of the Crediton Freemasons that our family members and other tradesmen did not simply join the ancient order. Fathers in the 1880s were followed by their sons in the 1900s and 1910s. They, their friends and in-laws were the local Freemasons. They had consolidated their middle class status through tacit engineering of social networks and local structures. By the middle of the 20th century, with the disappearance of the aristocracy, many of these families were regarded as the "gentry" of Crediton.
Captain George Blackler was lost at sea from the SS Archimedes, 1923, aged 53
Alfred Harris, working on Black's Bridge for the CNR railway, accidently slipped and fell to his death. His body was found when it surfaced the following spring.
Ernest Fey was knocked down and killed by an army truck in 1945, at Shoreham, Sussex, aged 77
Mary Dicker was knocked down and killed by a Harrods electric van in the blackout in 1939, aged 70
William Berry, Builder, fell from a ladder while building this bank in Crediton; he never fully recovered, dying in 1874, aged 67
Walter Faithful Crabbe operated a ferry on the Clarence River at First Falls, New South Wales. He drowned in an accident on the river in 1849, aged 34
John Perrin Huxtable died of injuries received in a railway accident in Australia in 1893. A railway guard, he fell, jamming his leg between the wheel and the lubricating box of a coal truck. He died of his injuries in Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, Sydney.
Ernest Heard, aged 10, drowned in a quarry pit whilst fetching water at Morchard Bishop, in 1894,
Charles Procter, died as a result of an accident whilst working for his father's haulage firm, in 1936, aged 38
Gerald Manning Goding, who worked for the railway in Queensland, died aged 59, in 1936, following a collision between two rail trolleys when his head struck a rail sleeper.
Henry Goding was killed by a fall of rock at the Band of Hope Mine, during the Australian goldrush in 1898, aged 25.
Samuel Haydon survived severe injuries from being crushed between his cart and a wall in November 1903.
Nester Saffin, 71, and her son-in-law Donald Nicholson, 40,were killed as a result of a motor accident at Willaura, Victoria, Australi in 1984
William Osborn, 6, and sister Esther Osborn, 4, drowned in the mill stream at Cullompton in 1899. Astonishingly their sister Lucy, 1 year 9 months, drowned in the river at Cullompton less than three years later.
Solomon Hughes, Trinity Pilot, died on his schooner Margaret, caught up in an anchor whilst trying to disentangle it, in 1878, aged 45
William Drew Degeer, 22 and his wife Linda née Mueller,21, were tragically both killed in a traffic accident the day after their wedding in April 1956, in British Columbia, Canada.
John Dunn was run over by a train, in 1866, aged 25
John Ashplant was killed by a train whilst walking home to Crediton on the railway line, aged 55 in 1901. He was probably the worse for drink.
In a shocking tragedy Heather Habner, née Saffin, 38, and her daughters Belinda, 15, and Kylie, 7, were killed in a road traffic accident in South Australia, on 17 July 1991
On 28th March 1991 great great uncle James Wright suffered the accident described above, (from Trewman's Exeter Flying Post of April 4 1891)
His sister-in-law noted in her diary " James Wright - first accident took place at Sir John Shelley's sawmills, Shobrooke Park". She had noted it some years after the event, perhaps on the occasion of a second accident of some description. But in fact accident-prone James had injured his eye in an earlier accident in 1866.
Despite the apparently horrific nature of this injury, James somehow survived. The census was held a week after the accident, and James was with his wife in Crediton, his mother also there, presumably helping to care for him.
In fact James outlived his first wife, having moved to Yorkshire with her to live and work. He married again in 1903. He died in 1909. Strangely there was no mention of this accident in subsequent Wright generations, perhaps because he died before the birth of any nephews and nieces.
We do not know how Arthur fared, but against this background of unemployment and uncertainty, the cry for help from the Spanish Government struck a chord in many people, including Arthur, who recognised that working people could play a part against the rising tide of fascism. Some 1600 volunteers went from Canada to Spain. We don't know when Arthur went to Spain. Probably like many he sailed from the USA to France, where from Paris he would be guided south and across the Spanish border. In Spain he joined the XVth International Brigade at their headquarters in Albacete. At 40 he was old to be a volunteer, but he was also experienced, having served throughout the First War, unlike many of his comrades. Initially the Canadians tended to serve with the Americans in the Lincoln battalion. In July 1937 however a Canadian Battalion was formed - the Mackenzie-Papineau, known as the Mac-Paps.
Perhaps Arthur fought with the Lincolns at the Jarama Valley in February 1937 repulsing a fascist thrust against Madrid, or at Brunete in July 1937, with the Republic offensive against Franco's armies to the west of Madrid. We know from letters home that he had been in Spain for some months by November 1937, so we can be sure that he fought with the Mac-Paps on the Aragon front, at Quinto or Fuentes de Ebro, in the autumn of 1937. He would have participated in the desperate battles around Belchite and Teruel between January and March 1938. And he was almost certainly engaged in the last struggles of the International Brigade, trying to hold the Ebro crossings and repulse the fascists' ultimately triumphant push for the sea in summer 1938. With defeat imminent, in October 1938 the Spanish Government vainly sought to encourage withdrawal of foreign troops on the fascist side by sending the International Brigades home.
They paraded for the last time in Barcelona on 29th October 1938, at a ceremony that affirmed the gratitude of the Spanish Republic for their service and sacrifice.
Mark has appeared on Mastermind, University Challenge, 15 to 1, and Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? He has been runner-up on The People's Quiz, on Brain of Britain, part of a winning team on Only Connect, and represented Wales at the European quiz championships.
On the subject of Freemasons, Thomas Ralling, brother of architect Octavius, was described in Masonic literature as "one of the best known masons in England".
He was initiated into Freemasonry on the 19th October 1869, and duly passed and raised in the November and December following, in Angel Lodge No. 51, the oldest lodge in the Province of Essex. There began a Masonic career resulting in Masonic High Office for him. In June 1871 he was appointed Secretary of the Lodge, and he was Master in 1877, in which year he was also appointed Provincial Grand Secretary of Essex, which office he held until his death in 1924.
In 1883 as Grand Junior Deacon of England he assisted at the advancement of the Prince of Wales as a Mark Mason.Ten years later, at the great meeting held at the Albert Hall on 13th June 1897 to celebrate Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee, he was appointed Assistant Grand Director of Ceremonies, and he was promoted to Past Grand Deacon in Grand Lodge in September 1916 where he was presented by the Provincial Grand Master Colonel Lockwood with the collar that he himself had worn when he had held a similar rank. He was, in 1894, the first Founder and first Master of Thomas Ralling Lodge, and he was Master of the Essex Masters Lodge No. 3256, founded at Colchester in 1907. At the time of his death he was the Master of the Fratres Calami Lodge No. 3791 – membership of which was confined to Secretaries of Lodges! In Royal Arch Masonry, he was exalted in Patriotic Chapter, No. 51 on 11th May 1871, appointed Scribe E, in 1873 and installed as MEZ in 1883.
On the formation of the Essex Provincial Grand Chapter in 1873 he was appointed its Provincial Scribe E and in 1887 he was appointed Grand Sword Bearer of England. He was a founder, in 1907, of Thomas Railing Chapter, and was its first MEZ. Outside of Craft Masonry, in the Mark degree he was advanced in the Constantine Lodge No. 145 in 1872, became Secretary in 1873, and occupied the Chair for two years in 1880 and 1881. He was appointed Grand Overseer of the Mark Province of East Anglia on its constitution in 1883, and Grand Junior Deacon in the Grand Lodge of Mark Masons a month later. In 1899 on the formation of a separate Essex Mark Province he became Provincial Grand Mark Secretary, which appointment he also held until his death. In 1919 he was promoted to Past Grand Junior Overseer of England. He was also a Royal Ark Mariner and first WCN of George Graveley Lodge No. 461 (and its Scribe!). He held numerous other senior offices as a Knight Templar and in Rosicrucian Chapters. He initiated his seven brothers including Octavius into Freemasonry, and also his son William.
Shobrooke House, some two miles from Crediton, has featured in the family history in several ways. The manor house and park was known as Little Fulford for most of its history, and was in the hands of the Tuckfield family and their descendants. In the late 18th and early 19th century Day Books of our builder John Prawl, and then his protégé , John Berry, Fulford appears as a source of much work, and almost daily one or more of the builders' craftsmen are working there. With its pleasant parkland and ornamental pond, it became a favourite place for a picnic, particularly when courting. At least one Heard made a photographic record of trips to the park. The Shelley family, cousins to the Tuckfields, took over the estate in 1880. In the mid nineteenth century the name had been changed from Fulford to Shobrooke Park. During the Second World War, St Peter's Preparatory School was evacuated from Broadstairs to Shobrooke House. Former pupils had included the Duke of Kent and the Duke of Gloucester. Amongst the pupils evacuated then was Peter de la Billiere who was to become General Sir Peter, Commander of British Forces in the Gulf War of 1991.
A passer-by raised the alarm, and a retired policeman who lived nearby helped to rescue some of the elderly residents who were still in bed. The cottages stood on the brow of a hill, and the December wind fanned the flames. There was no time to retrieve much in the way of furniture or possessions. When the fire brigade arrived 45 minutes later the blazing roof had fallen in; nothing could be done to save the buildings. 13 people were left homeless. No trace of the cottages remains today. They have been replaced by smart bungalows.
Read a contemporary newspaper account of the fire.
Second cousin Jack Haydon (1917-1981) served 22 years in the Royal Army Catering Corps. He served in Italy and after the war was posted to Kenya for a few years. In February 1952 he was one of the cooks catering for the visit to Kenya of Princess Elizabeth and her new husband the Duke of Edinburgh. In this capacity he cooked the last meal she ate before she learned that her father had died and she was now Queen Elizabeth II.
Thanks to Sue Pearkes, for the story and pictures
When our cousin circus vet Fernley Slee contacted Ian Payne FRCS, consultant opthalmic surgeon at the Plymouth Royal Eye Infirmary, sometime in the mid-50s, Mr. Payne found that Fernley was to introduce him to the most unusual patients of his career. Two tiger cubs, Lily and Rajah, in the possession of Chipperfield’s Circus, were suffering from congenital cataracts and Fernley Slee wanted Ian Payne to perform surgery to extract them.
Ian Payne took his wife and young daughter to meet the patients at Fernley's Plymouth house, where the tigers were wandering freely around Fernley's sitting room. Mrs Payne put her white leather handbag on the floor and one of the tigers bit the corner of it, and for years afterwards people would look askance at these teeth marks, and she would say airily, “Oh, it was bitten by a tiger…”
Thanks to Mr. Payne's skills, the tigers recovered successfully from the operation.